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Syndication

Another in-between bonus episode where we discuss the current Syrian conflict.

In my opinion, there are three main factors that led to the Syrian Civil War:

  1. Repressive rule from a minority Alawite leadership
  2. Uncommon strain on Syria's economy in the early to mid 2000's
  3. The Arab Spring upgrisings

We'll go into all three factors in the off-the-cuff discussion.

Support the Islamic History Podcast by giving a small monthly pledge. Visit https://www.patreon.com/islamichistory

Show notes for this episode can be found at IslamicLearningMaterials.com/BonusSyria

Direct download: bonus-syria.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:00am EDT

2-12: Assassination And Election

We're back!

After a long hiatus we discuss the assassination of Umar ibn Al-Khattab and the choice of Uthman as the 3rd Caliph of the Muslim world.

Show notes available at islamiclearningmaterials.com/election

Direct download: 12.mp3
Category:Islamic History -- posted at: 12:00am EDT

2-11: Nihavand And Caltrops

By 641, the Muslims had captured most of the Southwestern part of the Persian Empire.

This area contained the best and most fertile lands and would be modern day Iraq, Kuwait, and parts of northwestern Iran.

As mentioned previously, Umar had grown weary of all the fighting and was grateful for their current holdings.

However, the Persian pride was wounded and they couldn't accept a peace treaty with the Muslims.

Emperor Yesdijird made his base in Nihavan and began to build another army to attack the Muslims.

Continue Reading

Direct download: 2-11.mp3
Category:Islam History -- posted at: 12:00am EDT

2-10: Alexandria And Fustat

The Muslims arrived at Alexandria in July 641
It was perhaps the most magnificent and biggest city they've encountered so far
Alexandria was founded by the Greek general Alexander the Great and is named after him
In Arabic it is called Al-Iskandariyah
Alexander meant for it to be a great center of Hellenistic culture
However Alexander left the city under the command of one of his generals soon after founding it. Then he went back on the warpath and never came back
At one point, it was the second most important city in the world after Rome; if Rome was like NYC then Alexandria was like London
Alexandria linked the Greek and Roman parts of Europe with and Arabia and Asia

Continue Reading....

Direct download: 2-10.mp3
Category:Islamic History -- posted at: 12:00am EDT

2-9: 'Amr And Cyrus
  • The Romans, either from fear or incompetence, had done little to stop Amr during this time
  • Finally, they had to march out from Babylon to meet Amr near Heliopolis and try to drive him from Egypt for good
  • Amr's spies told him of their movements and he planned to go out to meet them in battle.
  • But during the night he sent out two smaller forces; one in the hills overlooking the plains...Continue Reading
Direct download: 2-9.mp3
Category:Islam History -- posted at: 12:00am EDT

2-8: Copts And Egypt
  • In 451, 115 years before Prophet Muhammad, several men representing various facets of Christianity met in Chalcedon in modern Turkey.
  • They were discussing how to define the true nature of Christ. They believed he was divine, yet he lived and died like a man.
  • 3 weeks later, they decided Jesus Christ had two natures in one: he was both God and man.
  • Any Christians who deviated from this belief were declared heretics which immediately led to a schism in the Church
  • While most Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians accepted the Chalcedon decree, Armenian, Ethiopian, and Coptic Christians did not...Continue Reading
Direct download: 2-8.mp3
Category:Islamic History -- posted at: 12:00am EDT

2-7: Plague And Famine
  • In 639, a plague broke out, originating in Nicopolis, or Imwas, in the modern state of Israel.
  • The city no longer exists as it was destroyed by Israeli army during Six Day war.
  • It is estimated around 20000 people died from this plague. Among them were many prominent Sahabas.
  • The most well-knonw of all was Abu Ubaidah, the general that succeeded KIW in Syria
  • Another companion was Muadh ibn Jabal - most famous for these instructions he received from Prophet Muhammad before embarking to Syria

Continue reading...

Direct download: 2-7.mp3
Category:Islamic History -- posted at: 12:00am EDT

2-6: 636 and 637 CE

Battle of Qadisiyyah was more devastating for the Persians than the Battle of Yarmouk was for the Romans
Their defeat at Qadisiyyah left the Persian capital exposed to Muslim forces
However, the Roman capital was hundreds of miles away in Constantinople and very safe from Muslim forces
The Romans still had the ability to wage war against the Muslims
However, the Persians were now just trying to survive
We'll look at the events in Syria after Yarmouk first, and then take a look at Persia after Qadisiyyah

Direct download: 2-6.mp3
Category:Islam History -- posted at: 12:00am EDT

2-5: Yarmouk And Qadisiyyah

- Where we are so far
-- In 632 CE Prophet Muhammad died and Abu Bakr was chosen by the residents of Medina as the Caliph
-- Soon after, several of the Arab tribes that were allied with the Prophet rebelled against Abu Bakr
-- Abu Bakr and his general KIW led a successful campaign to bring these tribes back in line
-- These were known as the Ridda, or Apostasy Wars
-- Abu Bakr commanded KIW to begin an invasion of southern Persia.
-- KIW was successful and conquered most of the area around the Euphrates River
-- At the same time, Abu Bakr also ordered Abu Ubaidah to lead an invasion into Syria
-- Abu Ubaidah ran into strong resistance so Abu Bakr had KIW come from Persia to assist
-- KIW led the Muslims to conquer Syria all the way up to Damascus
-- Back in Medina, Abu Bakr died and Umar ibn Al-Khattab became the Caliph
-- Umar removed KIW as the leader of the Muslim armies and put Abu Ubaidah back in charge
-- The Romans and Syrians got over their initial shock of the Muslim invasion and began a strong counterattack.
- In the last episode we discussed how the Romans and Persians began to make a comeback
- Now we'll go into the details of that comeback and the result
- We will first discuss the events in Syria and then those in Persia

Direct download: 2-5.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:00am EDT

In many ways, it was more of an organized mob. There were no uniforms and no ranks.
- Commanders were appointed at will, generally based on accomplishment or tribal position.
- Their weapons was whatever they could find. Many of them came from defeated Persian and Roman soldiers
- Most armies have to deal with supplies and feeding thousands of people. Many of the soldiers traveled with their families
- The Arabs didn't have that problem as they carried their food with them and were used to living on very little
- They could live for days, even weeks on just dates, water, and camel milk.
- This allowed KIW and other commanders to travel long distances with no supply chain or base of operations
- The desert itself was another advantage. Most of the Roman soldiers were not used to it.
- Unless they were invading a city, the Muslims usually fought with their backs to the desert.
- If they were ambushed or fought in the open country, they could slip into the desert where their enemey couldn't follow.
- The four armies sent by Abu Bakr pushed into southern Syria (modern day Jordan) and conquered many small towns

Continue Reading

Direct download: 2-4.mp3
Category:Islamic History -- posted at: 12:00am EDT